One of the largest oil producers and exporters in the world.
Russia’s crude oil and condensate production will exceed 10.5 million barrels per day in 2021, accounting for 14% of global supply. Russia’s crude oil and gas production systems are spread across the country, although the majority of its fields are in western and eastern Siberia. The year 2021,Russia’s crude oil exports are expected to peak at around 4.7 million barrels per day. Although China is Russia’s top crude oil importer (1.6 million bpd), Russia also sends significant quantities to European consumers (2.4 million bpd).
Russia produces a variety of crude oils, the most important of which being Urals, a medium-heavy oil. The East Siberia-Pacific Ocean pipeline also transports huge amounts of ESPO blended crude to Asia. Siberian light, Sokol, Sakhalin blend, Arctic, and Novy Port are some of the other oils available.
Despite the fact that Russia’s oil business has been consolidating in recent years, numerous large companies remain. Russia’s state-owned Rosneft is the country’s largest crude oil producer. Following that is LUKOIL, the country’s largest privately held oil and gas corporation. Major oil refiners and producers include Gazprom Neft, Surgutneftegaz, Tatneft, and Russneft.
Russia has a major crude oil export pipeline that allows it to transfer large volumes of oil directly to Europe and Asia. The Druzhba pipeline system, which is about 5,500 kilometres long and transports 750,000 barrels per day directly to refineries in Eastern and Central Europe, is the world’s longest pipeline network. Currently, this pipeline transports around 20% of Russia’s total crude oil to European refineries.
Russia completed the 4,740 kilometre ESPO pipeline in 2012, capable of transporting 1.6 million barrels per day to Asian markets such as China and Japan. The pipeline is part of Russia’s strategic energy pivot to Asia, a policy aimed at reducing reliance on European exports while capitalising on Asia’s burgeoning crude oil demand.
Russia also ships crude oil via tanker from the ports of Ust-Luga and Primorsk in the northwestern United States, as well as Novorossiysk in the Black Sea and Kozmino in the Far East. Furthermore, Russia sells crude oil through rail.
Russia has a refining capacity of 6.9 million barrels per day and generates a lot of oil products like gasoline and diesel. To take advantage of government tax advantages and expanding worldwide demand for diesel, Russian enterprises have spent the last decade extensively investing in primary and secondary refining infrastructure.
A natural gas market behemoth
After the United States, Russia is the world’s second largest natural gas producer, with the world’s largest gas reserves. Russia is also the top gas exporter in the world. The country is expected to produce 762 billion cubic metres of natural gas in 2021 and export 210 billion cubic metres.
Russia’s two biggest gas producers are Gazprom and Novatek, however several Russian oil corporations, including Rosneft, also have gas producing facilities. Although Gazprom is the largest gas producer, its proportion of output has decreased over time as Novatek and Rosneft have increased capacity. However, Gazprom will continue to produce 68 percent of Russia’s gas in 2021.
At the end of 2019, Russia launched the Power of Siberia pipeline, a 3,000-kilometer-long gas export pipeline with a capacity of 38 billion cubic metres that can transport gas to China. Through the Power of Siberia-2 pipeline, Gazprom sold more over 10 billion cubic metres of natural gas in 2021, and export volume is planned to steadily expand to 38 billion cubic metres in the next years. The Power of Siberia-2 pipeline, with a capacity of 50 billion cubic metres per year, is being developed by Russia.
In addition, Russia has been increasing its LNG capacity in order to compete with rising LNG exports from the United States, Australia, and Qatar. The year 2021
Russia has been focusing on the Arctic in recent years as a method to boost oil and gas output and offset reductions in current production facilities. More than 80% of Russia’s natural gas is produced in the Arctic, while roughly 20% of Russia’s crude oil is produced there.
While climate change poses a threat to future projects in the region, it also provides Russia with the chance to expand access to Arctic trade routes, providing Moscow greater flexibility in shipping fossil resources, particularly to Asia.